Opioids & SU
The Literature Collection contains over 9,000 references for published and grey literature on the integration of behavioral health and primary care. Learn More
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Crystal methamphetamine ("meth") use is on the rise in the USA, having devastating effects on individuals and communities. Innovative prevention strategies are therefore critical. Through an exploratory qualitative study, we examined the perspectives and experiences of teenagers and parents around meth prevention messaging formats and strategies. Teens and adults were recruited through middle and high schools, libraries, local sporting events, and word of mouth in three communities in North Idaho, May-September 2016. Guided by the theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model, we conducted focus groups and small group interviews (three teen; two adults). Using a deductive content analytic approach, we developed teen- and adult-specific codebooks, analyzed the transcripts with NVivo 12-Plus, and identified themes. Teens and adults were all acutely aware of meth use in their communities, personally knowing people who were addicted to meth, and all understood the oral ("meth mouth") and physical ("crank bugs") consequences of meth use. Three primary themes were identified, which focused on the effects of, addiction to, and messaging around crystal meth use. For teens and adults, images illustrating the effects of meth were least effective if they appeared unrealistic or comical. Teens resonated most with messages focusing on pain and vanity (bad teeth and breath), and there was consensus that showing teens images simulating changes in their appearance over time as a result of meth use in a clinical setting would be an effective prevention strategy. Teens and adults who had exposure to meth addiction in North Idaho felt that prevention messages focused on meth are imperative, given its high prevalence and deleterious effects. Future work will entail developing and testing a communication-based meth prevention strategy along with tailored messaging that can be used with teens in dental settings.
Webinar - Faced with increasing rates of opioid addiction and insufficient treatment capacity to meet demand for care, Vermont developed a novel framework to expand medication assisted treatment in both Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs) and Office-Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) settings. Although this initiative initially focuses on medication assisted treatment for individuals with opioid use disorders, it creates a framework for integrating treatment services for other substance abuse issues and co-occurring mental health disorders into the medical home through a managed approach to care. In addition, this treatment approach will help reduce recidivism in corrections and enhance outcomes for families where addiction is an identified problem for child welfare. Note: Viewing of the webinar requires free registration.
This grey literature reference is included in the Academy's Literature Collection in keeping with our mission to gather all sources of information on integration. Grey literature is comprised of materials that are not made available through traditional publishing avenues. Often, the information from unpublished resources can be limited and the risk of bias cannot be determined.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To promote increased access to and retention in buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) implemented the Buprenorphine Nurse Care Manager Initiative (BNCMI) in 2016, in which nurse care managers (NCMs) coordinate buprenorphine treatment in safety-net primary care clinics. To explore how patients experienced the care they received from NCMs, DOHMH staff conducted in-person, in-depth interviews with patients who had, or were currently receiving, buprenorphine treatment at BNCMI clinics. Participants were patients who were receiving, or had received, buprenorphine treatment through BNCMI at one of the participating safety-net primary care practices. METHODS: The study team used a thematic analytic and framework analysis approach to capture concepts related to patient experiences of care received from NCMs, and to explore differences between those who were in treatment for at least six consecutive months and those who left treatment within the first six months. RESULTS: Themes common to both groups were that NCMs showed care and concern for patients' overall well-being in a nonjudgmental manner. In addition, NCMs provided critical clinical and logistical support. Among out-of-treatment participants, interactions with the NCM were rarely the catalyst for disengaging with treatment. Moreover, in-treatment participants perceived the NCM as part of a larger clinical team that collectively offered support, and the care provided by NCMs was often a motivating factor for them to remain engaged in treatment. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that by providing emotional, clinical, and logistical support, as well as intensive engagement (e.g., frequent phone calls), the care that NCMs provide could encourage retention of patients in buprenorphine treatment.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this article are to present findings from recent qualitative research with patients in a combined perinatal substance use treatment program in Central Appalachia, and to describe and analyze participants' ambivalence about medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD), in the context of widespread societal stigma and judgement. METHODS: We conducted research in a comprehensive outpatient perinatal substance use treatment program housed in a larger obstetric practice serving a large rural, Central Appalachian region. The program serves patients across the spectrum of substance use disorders but specifically offers medication-assisted treatment to perinatal patients with OUD. We purposively and opportunistically sampled patients receiving prescriptions for buprenorphine or buprenorphine-naloxone dual product, along with prenatal care and other services. Through participant-observation and semi-structured interviews, we gathered qualitative data from 27 participants, in a total of 31 interviews. We analyzed transcripts of interviews and fieldnotes using modified Grounded Theory. RESULTS: Participants in a combined perinatal substance use treatment program value supportive, non-judgmental care but report ambivalence about medication, within structural and institutional contexts of criminalized, stigmatized substance use and close scrutiny of their pregnancies. Women are keenly aware of the social and public consequences for themselves and their parenting, if they begin or continue medication treatment for OUD. CONCLUSIONS: Substance use treatment providers should consider the social consequences of medication treatment, as well as the clinical benefits, when presenting treatment options and recommendations to patients. Patient-centered care must include an understanding of larger social and structural contexts.
Medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) with buprenorphine is effective in treating opioid use disorder yet remains underutilized. Scant research has examined the experience of patients, clinic staff, and providers in a "low-threshold" group-based MOUD program. This study evaluates a "low-threshold" MOUD program at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania through the perspectives of its key stakeholders. Methods: This qualitative study involved focus groups of patients, providers, and clinic staff. Focus groups were conducted between October 2017 and June 2018. Grounded theory was used for analysis. Results: There were a total of 10 focus groups, including 20 patient participants and 26 staff members. Program participants noted that a strength of the program is its person-centered harm reduction approach, which is reflected in the program's policies and design. Program participants discussed the programmatic design choices that facilitated their participation and engagement in the program: ease of access, integration into primary care, and group-based visit model. Challenges in program implementation included varying acceptance and understanding of harm reduction among staff, the unpredictability of clinic volume and workflow, and the need to balance access to primary care and MOUD. Conclusion: This group-based MOUD program's philosophy of person-centered harm reduction, low-barrier approach, the structure of group-based visits, and integrated care contributes to increased patient access and retention. Understanding the strengths and challenges of the program may be useful for other safety-net clinics considering a MOUD program.