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Education and Workforce
An estimated 26 percent of patients seen in primary care meet criteria for a mental disorder (Spitzer et al., 1994); however, according to a large national sample survey (n = 9,282), only 41 percent of people with mental disorders received any form of treatment in the preceding year (Wang, et al., 2005). And while more of these people received treatment in primary care than in any other setting, the treatment provided in the primary care setting met minimal adequacy standards only 13 percent of the time.
Neither the professional workforce nor the system of structuring and paying for care is adequate to address the need for behavioral health services in the United States (Goodheart, 2010). However, multiple studies suggest that collaboration between medical and behavioral health providers improves patient outcomes and satisfaction (Oishi, Shoai, Katon, et al, 2003; Oxman, Dietrich, and Schulberg, 2003).
Integrated care team members may include:
- Primary care clinicians, physician’s assistants, psychiatrists, nurse practitioners
- Behavioral health providers such as social workers, psychologists, mental health counselors, substance abuse counselors, and family and marriage therapists
- Allied health professionals or paraprofessionals such as health educators, care coordinators, depression care coordinators, community health workers, promotores de salud, peer coaches, or patient navigators.
Since our traditional educational and training paradigm has not focused on collaboration and a comprehensive, team-based approach, the majority of our health care workforce has not received training on working together to provide effective integrated services.
Training and education programs that are focused on integration are emerging. More than 90 are listed in our Programs section.
Visit the literature collection for a list of citations on integration Education and Workforce issues.